Medical equipment plays crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of several medical conditions. IV infusion set is the most commonly used equipment in the hospital emergency situation. Intravenous infusion set is an effective and fast-acting equipment to administer fluid or medication treatment in an emergency situation, and for patients who are unable to take medications orally. Approximately 80% of all patients in the hospital setting will receive intravenous infusion set for rapid drug delivery or IV fluids.
A collection of sterile devices designed to conduct fluids from an intravenous (IV) fluid container to a patient’s venous system; used for gravitational intravenous administration.
Intravenous infusion set is used to administer intravenous therapy. Intravenous therapy is the effective and fastest way to administer medications and replace fluids throughout the body. Basically, IV fluids and drugs dissolved into suitable solvent/liquid is delivered directly into the patients’ vein who can’t take medications and replenish fluids orally. During IV infusion, IV fluids or solutions containing drugs are administered into a vein that include a plastic glass vacuum bottle or bag containing the solution to be administered
3. Drip chamber
4. Roller clamp
5. Injector site
Most infusion sets are made up of Polyethylene terephthalate glycol material to ensure high strength, ease of sealing, resistance to sterilization procedures, and are relatively more economical. Based on the purpose of usage, the IV infusion set is divided into two types:
Micro drip set: This infusion set is used for pediatric patients and specific adult patients who require a small, closely-regulated dose of IV solution as it delivers a small quantity with each drop.
Macro drip set: This set infuses large quantities of IV solution at rapid rates as it delivers a large quantity with each drop.
IV infusion set is used to administer intravenous therapy. Intravenous therapy is treatment that infuses intravenous solutions, medications, blood, or blood products directly into a vein (Perry, Potter, & Ostendorf, 2014).
It provides patient with a rapid and effective means to deliver fluids and medication during medical conditions such as during diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, specialized medication delivery, or for blood transfusions. Approximately 70-80% of all patients in the hospital setup usually receive intravenous therapy. However, the type of administration depends upon the rate and type of infusion, and the kind of solution container used.
The most common reasons to use IV infusion set include:
1. To replenish fluid and electrolyte balance. If a patient is critically ill and has fluid loss related to accident, dehydration, surgery, vomiting, diarrhea, or any other medical condition, the patient may require IV therapy.
2. To administer medications, including chemotherapy, anesthetics, or antibiotics to patients who can’t take them orally.
3. To administer blood or blood products.
4. To deliver nutrients and nutritional supplements. Total parenteral solution are administered to patients to replenish the nutrient values of critically ill patients.
Following are the basic steps to use IV infusion set:
1. Close the roller clamp
2. Prepare I.V. solution container (bag or bottle)
3. Insert spike into the I.V chamber. If using a bottle for infusion, you need to open the vent cap to allow air to go into the bottle for fluid to release.
4. Suspend I.V. container and squeeze flexible drip chamber until fluid level reaches the line.
5. Attach needle to set
6. In order to ensure the correct amount fluid in the drip chamber, IV clamp is used to control the rate at which the IV fluid infuses to the vein.
7. Make venipuncture
8. Open clamp and regulate flow by adjusting roller.
9. Replace every 24 hours.
10. Single use only, discard after use.
Infusions contain fluids with additives are changed every 24 hours. IV infusions containing antibiotics can be used up-to 72 hours according to the infusion rate and dose, after that it should be changed along with infusion bag after administration.